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Throughput vs. Speed – Basics of Copper and Fiber Optic Cables for Superior Data Transmission

Feature Throughput vs. Speed - Basics of Copper and Fiber Optic Cables for Superior Data Transmission

Copper cables have been a staple for data transmission for decades, with their roots tracing back to the telegraph and telephone. Fiber optic cables, introduced in the 1950s, have grown in popularity since the early 1970s. When choosing between copper and fiber optic cables for your applications, understanding the differences in throughput and speed is crucial. Let’s explore the history, transmission methods, and practical applications of these two types of cables.

Throughput vs. Speed - Basics of Copper and Fiber Optic Cables for Superior Data Transmission

The History of Data Cables

Copper cables have been the backbone of long-distance electricity and communication transmission for many years. Fiber optic cables emerged in the 1970s and rapidly gained popularity due to their unique capabilities. While both cable types serve similar purposes, their underlying technology differs significantly.

Copper cables transmit data through electrical impulses, which travel over short and long distances. However, copper has its limitations, including durability, signal loss, security vulnerabilities, and susceptibility to interference.

For more on this you can read our Whitepaper on copper cables below:

WHITEPAPER – Understanding Ethernet Patch Cords in Modern Networks

Whitepaper: Understanding Ethernet Patch Cords in Modern Networks - AnD Cable Products

This whitepaper explores the differences in ethernet cable and connector properties, the relevant Standards and provides a guide to best use cases within data center environments

  • Ethernet Patch Cords and RJ-45 Connectors
  • Ethernet Patch Cords and UTP Cabling
  • Twisted Conductor Pairs – What’s All the Twisting About?
  • Straight-Through and Crossover Patch Cord Cables

Fiber optic cables utilize light pulses for data transmission, produced by an LED and transmitted through strands of specialized glass or plastic. Light and electricity can travel at near-light speeds, theoretically allowing global data transmission within seconds. Advances in fiber optic technology continue to improve data transfer rates.

Read our Whitepaper on fiber optic cables for more below:

WHITEPAPER – Understanding Fiber Optic Cables and Connectors in Modern Networks

Fanned Understanding Fiber Optic Cables and Connectors in Modern Networks

This whitepaper takes a deeper look into the various fiber optic cable and connector types used in modern networks, their specifications, benefits and draw-backs. It details typical applications and use in data center settings.

  • Fiber Optic Cable Types and Attributes
  • Fiber Optic Connector Types and Attributes
  • Fiber Optic Measurements and Classifications

Data Transmission Techniques

Understanding the methods of data transmission is essential, as it directly affects the cable’s reliability, speed, and maximum distance.

Copper cables rely on electrical pulses, which a decoder then interprets back into the original data. Over longer distances, signal attenuation, or deterioration, occurs due to resistance.

Fiber optic cables employ binary-coded light pulses, with a pulse representing a 1 and no pulse a 0. Optical receivers decode these pulses back into electronic data. The cable’s protective cladding and materials help maintain signal strength over long distances.

Speed vs. Throughput

Although both electrical and light pulses transmit data at near-light speeds, fiber optic cables are faster. The critical difference between copper and fiber optic cables is throughput, or the volume of data transmitted within a specific period.

For example, a legacy copper telephone line supports 3,000 simultaneous calls, while modern fiber optic network cables can handle up to 31,000 calls. As data transmission demands increase, the shift towards fiber optic cables is essential.

Throughput in data transmission refers to the cable’s ability to handle a specific data volume within a given time. For instance, some fiber optic cables can transmit up to 10Gbps, while copper cables manage only 25-300 Mbps. This significant difference stems from the cable’s frequency range, with higher frequencies enabling greater throughput.

Copper cables suffer from signal attenuation at both longer distances and higher frequencies. Additionally, their metal construction makes them prone to noise and electromagnetic interference, unlike fiber optic cables.

Selecting the Right Cable for Your Application

The primary factors to consider when selecting a cable are data volume, transmission frequency, distance, and potential interference.

Copper cables still have their place in data centers and other applications, primarily due to their lower cost. They are suitable for power and minimal data transmission across short distances in protected environments.

While copper cables have improved in durability and insulation, fiber optic cables have also advanced, now supporting even higher frequencies in thinner cables. The reduced size of fiber optic cables enhances airflow around server racks, mitigating tangling and breakage issues.

For expert guidance on fiber optic cables for new installations, moves, or changes, reach out to AnD Cable Products. Our team specializes in remote monitoring systems, Zero U cable management installations, and more. We are committed to supporting your business at every stage of development.

About the Author

Louis Chompff - Founder, AnD Cable Products, Rack and Cable ManagementLouis Chompff – Founder & Managing Director, AnD Cable Products
Louis established AnD Cable Products – Intelligently Designed Cable Management in 1989. Prior to this he enjoyed a 20+ year career with a leading global telecommunications company in a variety of senior data management positions. Louis is an enthusiastic inventor who designed, patented and brought to market his innovative Zero U cable management racks and Unitag cable labels, both of which have become industry-leading network cable management products. AnD Cable Products only offer products that are intelligently designed, increase efficiency, are durable and reliable, re-usable, easy to use or reduce equipment costs. He is the principal author of the Cable Management Blog, where you can find network cable management ideas, server rack cabling techniques and rack space saving tips, data center trends, latest innovations and more.
Visit https://andcable.com or shop online at https://andcable.com/shop/

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The Data Link Layer – How DAC and AOC Cables Can Work For You

Feature - The Data Link Layer - How DAC and AOC Cables Can Work For You - Cable Management Blog

As the need for data storage and speed increases, the need for hyperscale data centers has increased. So has the need for edge data centers as well. While large-scale centers serve companies like Amazon, Microsoft, and Google, other organizations are looking at smaller data centers closer to the end-user. In both cases, the data link layer of the data center is critical. Enter Direct Attach Copper (DACs) cables and Active Optical Cables (AOCs).

The Data Link Layer - How DAC and AOC Cables Can Work For You - Cable Management Blog
The data link layer of the data center is critical to ensuring your resources and used to their full potential

What is that data link layer? It’s the physical layer, the connection between servers that ensures all the computing resources are used to their full potential. The speed and integrity of these connectors can make a huge difference. 

They include Direct Attach Copper (DACs) cables, Active Optical Cables (AOCs), and fiber optic cable assemblies connected into transceivers throughout the data center. How does each one work, and why are they so critical to installation, maintenance, and deployment?

The Need for Speed

There are two aspects to the need for speed: the need for speed in shorter cables between servers, and the need for speed over longer distances. Different kinds of cables work differently in each instance. 

For example, DACs are most often used over short distances, connecting units in the same server rack. They can be active or passive – active connections are part of signal processing circuitry, and passive connections simply carry power. In the case of a DAC, the cable is made of copper rather than fiber. 


WHITEPAPER – Understanding Stranded and Solid Conductor Wiring in Modern Networks

Understanding Stranded and Solid Conductor Wiring in Modern Networks - AnD Cable Products Whitepaper

An overview of the differences between stranded and solid conductor wiring, the properties of each and the best cable type to use in a variety of typical settings.

  • Types of Stranded and Solid Conductor Wiring
  • Comparison of Electrical Properties
  • Factors Impacting Attenuation / Insertion Loss
  • Choosing the Right Cable


AOCs usually connect devices within the same row, but they cover longer distances than their copper cousins. However, they do not work in End of Row (EOR) or Middle of Row (MOR) configurations where certain types of patch panels are used. They are usually provided in fixed lengths from a few meters long to more than 100 meters. AOCs are active and include transceivers, control chips, and modules.

Both are fast, similar in speed to optic fiber cables, but that speed can be compromised by cable damage or in the case of DACs, electromagnetic interference. Both must be tested with a tool that can accept dual SFP/QSFP transceivers and generate and analyze traffic.

So how do you test them? Well, there are methods that include automation, but there are other factors to consider. 

Automation Matters

 Speed drives us to DACs and AOCs in some cases, but they can become damaged in a variety of ways. This often doesn’t even happen in the installation process, but in the shipping and handling before they even arrive at the data center. Sometimes it happens if they are stored and moved frequently. 

So the first place to test them is before installation. This ensures they are working before they are put into service. It’s easy to see how testing all cables at installation can be costly and time-consuming but not testing early can be costly later on. 

The solution is rapid, automated testing that can be done by running a test pattern where the results can be compared to a Bit Error Rate (BER) threshold. DAC and AOC cables including breakouts usually have a BER rating on their datasheets, especially when they are meant to be used with devices implementing the RS-FEC algorithm.

The tests only take a minute per cable and result in reports including a cable identifier, such as the serial number, identifying clearly any faulty equipment. 

Proper Power Planning

What’s the other advantage of DACs and AOCs? Energy savings. Point to point high-speed cables take less power and can save money, especially at scale. While DACs offer more dramatic numbers per cable, AOCs offer savings as well when multiple transceivers are replaced by cables. 

They’re not ideal for every case in every data center, but where they can be used as a key part of deployment, they can provide significant energy savings.

Living on the Edge Deployment

The other argument for DAC and AOC deployment and testing at installation exists on the edge. More Edge deployments force centers to increase speed, security, and efficiency at the same time as they minimize latency.

Opting to wait and address any connectivity issues during troubleshooting results in costly mistakes and skipping troubleshooting steps in favor of speedy repairs, sometimes those that are not necessary. Not only is this costly – cables can vary from tens of dollars to thousands but it can also lead to confusing labels and the increased probability of unplugging a live cable.

The fact that DACs and AOCs can be tested so quickly and easily at the time of installation is another great argument for their use in the data link layer. But no matter what cable configuration your data center uses, from point to point high-speed cables to other fiber and optical options, the management of that data link layer is critical to smooth data center operations.

Looking for High Speed Cables?

WD 25G SFP28 SFP+ DAC Cable - 25GBASE-CR, SFP28 to SFP28 Passive Direct Attach Copper, Twinax Cable

Ready to start optimizing your data link layer? Have questions about what cables might be right for you and your application? Whether you are deploying a brand new data center or making moves and changes, we’re here to help. Contact AnD Cable Products today for more information. We’re here to help every step of the way. 

About the Author

Louis Chompff - Founder, AnD Cable Products, Rack and Cable ManagementLouis Chompff – Founder & Managing Director, AnD Cable Products
Louis established AnD Cable Products – Intelligently Designed Cable Management in 1989. Prior to this he enjoyed a 20+ year career with a leading global telecommunications company in a variety of senior data management positions. Louis is an enthusiastic inventor who designed, patented and brought to market his innovative Zero U cable management racks and Unitag cable labels, both of which have become industry-leading network cable management products. AnD Cable Products only offer products that are intelligently designed, increase efficiency, are durable and reliable, re-usable, easy to use or reduce equipment costs. He is the principal author of the Cable Management Blog, where you can find network cable management ideas, server rack cabling techniques and rack space saving tips, data center trends, latest innovations and more.
Visit https://andcable.com or shop online at https://andcable.com/shop/

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8 Critical Data Center Practices for Floor Design and Delivery

Woman Drawing Data Center Floor Plan Designs on Glass Wall

The physical layer of the internet, the data center, is largely dependent on floor plans, not only the floor design and type of the floor itself, but where you put everything, and how that impacts data accessibility and delivery for your clients.

Perhaps the most important feature of any data center is agility and flexibility. To prepare for the future, floor plans must have the ability to adapt built-in. How do we get there?

Jump to Section:

  1. Density and Capacity
  2. Prepping for Future Architecture and Changes
  3. Storage and Cooling
  4. Building Management Systems
  5. Built-in Redundancy
  6. Remote Management
  7. Physical Layer Security
  8. Using Renewable Energy
Woman Drawing Data Center Floor Plan Designs
To prepare for the future, data center floor plans must have the ability to adapt built-in

1. Density and Capacity

First, we must think in terms of both density and capacity: there is always a tradeoff between power and space. A denser server system will require a more sophisticated power and cooling strategy, which may in the long run be more costly per watt than a less aggressive approach.

The most common answer is a blend of both high and low-density rack layouts to get the maximum benefits of each. Modular density allows for the addition of capacity over time and with energy costs higher than the cost of space (at least currently) a less dense approach makes more sense for most applications and data center floor designs.

2. Prepping for Future Architecture and Changes

This brings us nicely to the next point. Server configurations are constantly changing, and likely will continue to do so going forward. Balancing density and capacity when it comes to data center floor design makes it easier to make moves and changes when the need arises.

A forward-thinking floor design simply means you are ready when whatever technology is next taking over the market. Think of how your current layout can be adapted to new forms and layouts.

3. Storage and Cooling

This naturally leads to storage and cooling, which is directly related to density and capacity, and future thinking. You must consider how you will store data, what kind of servers and racks you will use, and even where you will source them and other materials.

A part of that will also be your cooling plan. How will you cool your systems? Will you have an underfloor wiring plan or an overhead one? What kind of floor will you have? What will your HVAC system look like, and how will access to the building be controlled? This is all something to think about while looking at your floor designs.

4. Building Management Systems

What does your building management system look like, and how well does it meet your data center needs. There are several aspects to consider, including your maintenance services

  • Generators
  • UPS Batteries and backups
  • Electrical supply infrastructure
  • Mechanical systems maintenance

All these various pieces require various levels of maintenance, and physical accessibility must be a consideration. This also leads to our next point.

5. Built-in Redundancy

When maintenance occurs or disaster strikes, redundant systems need to be in place to keep the stellar uptime customers demand. This must be a part of your data center floor design from the start. This is a part of not only data center service, but physical and data layer security as well.

6. Remote Management

If 2020 has taught us anything, it’s that people can do many things remotely in an amazing way. While remote monitoring and even management of data centers have been possible for quite some time, the pandemic propelled it to a mainstream priority. Any data center design conceived going forward must be structured to enable remote monitoring and management.

This goes relates to everything, from building management systems to server management systems. Sensors can detect when something is wrong, in many cases take action to correct the issue, and inform human data center management of the issues, so that permanent corrections can be implemented.

7. Physical Layer Security

Of course, a part of remote management leads to physical layer network security. This includes everything from digital locks for entrances with biometric security in place to door alarms, AI monitoring of camera systems, and more.

These systems are far better than an on-premises security team, can be monitored from anywhere, and both managers and if necessary the appropriate authorities can be notified of any incident requiring attention.

8. Using Renewable Energy

Finally, an important part of data center management and development going forward is the use of renewable energy. While this does not always impact the physical layout of the interior of your data center, it may impact your power and electrical configurations, the redundancies you need to have built into your data center, and the area you have to expand the physical footprint of your data center going forward.

A big part of your data center floor design and how you arrange both high and low-density areas of the data center is related to the server racks, cable management products, and physical layer security systems you choose.

At AnD Cable Products, we can make sure you have everything you need to set things up properly from the start or to make moves and changes as you need to. Contact Us today! We’d love to discuss your data center needs.

Physical Layer Environment Network Security Monitoring and Control

A150 Physical Layer Environment Network Security Monitoring and Control System Brochure

Full visibility, network security and control of your physical layer environment. Monitor your entire hybrid cloud and IT infrastructure from a cloud-based, integrated dashboard:

  • Introducing the A150 System
  • A150 System Architecture – High-Level Overview
  • A150 System Features
  • System Controller Hardware and Specifications
  • Monitoring Controllers, Probes and Sensors

About the Author

Louis Chompff - Founder, AnD Cable Products, Rack and Cable ManagementLouis Chompff, Founder & Managing Director, AnD Cable Products
Louis established AnD Cable Products – Intelligently Designed Cable Management in 1989. Prior to this he enjoyed a 20+ year career with a leading global telecommunications company in a variety of senior data management positions. Louis is an enthusiastic inventor who designed, patented and brought to market his innovative Zero U cable management racks and Unitag cabel labels, both of which have become industry-leading network cable management products. AnD Cable Products only offer products that are intelligently designed, increase efficiency, are durable and reliable, re-usable, easy to use or reduce equipment costs. He is the principal author of the Cable Management Blog, where you can find network cable management ideas, server rack cabling techniques and space saving tips, data center trends, latest innovations and more.
Visit https://andcable.com or shop online https://andcable.com/shop/

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Is The Future of Data Centers Hyperscale and Colocation?

Feature - Is The Future of Data Centers Hyperscale and Colocation? AnD Cable Management Blog

Whenever we talk about data centers, we talk about the fact that many businesses, even large enterprises, have moved to a cloud version of a data center, allowing someone else to manage their servers, storage, and other network elements. But colocation, born in the cloud DVR era, has started to make a comeback and is in fact, its own type of business. What’s driving this trend, and is it the future of data centers?

Jump to Section:

Future of Data Centers

What is Colocation?

Colocation is essentially where instead of installing servers in a certain area or a certain room in your business location, you rent space for your servers and equipment in an established data center owned by a third party. This space can consist of a small area, a room, or even a cage of sorts. Since the data center already has the power and cooling capacity needed to house servers, a business doesn’t need to invest in building and equipping a new space of their own.

Colocation started as a way for two companies, Comcast and Charter Communications worked with yet another company to set up a data center that could provide users of online “cloud DVR” services with the speed they needed to “re-stream” content they had recorded.

Today, colocation companies are really real estate brokers of sorts: they sell or rent space that meets a company’s specific needs. Space is located within a large (sometimes very large) data center where “tenants” share the cost for power, cooling, and maintenance.

But why the surge in popularity now and is the future of data centers?

The Cost of the Cloud

When data reaches a certain speed and volume needs, a cloud data center can sometimes be more expensive than a physical network. Businesses, as they grow, often discover this, and move at least part of their cloud computing back onto colocated servers where they own and maintain their own servers.

Another reason involves data sovereignty requirements: certain data cannot cross country or other boundaries, limiting the type and location of cloud data operations a company can use. The need for additional physical protection of data also feeds this trend.

Edge computing, the option of deploying IT assets in multiple, smaller, more geographically diverse locations, is changing the conversation around data centers. Digital assets are widely distributed between the cloud and colocation and the objectives of this type of distribution is constantly changing depending on company needs.

The Value of Space

One key here is space. Often a smaller business might only need a single rack of space: others might have greater needs. Ensuring that any rented space is used to the best advantage is key: the less space used, the lower the cost. After all, data center relocation companies are often simply real estate and property brokers, and many don’t understand exactly what their customers are trying to accomplish and what needs they might have.

But to “sell” their services effectively, they need to learn the language of computing rather than real estate. Square footage and “a killer window vies” must be replaced with terms like workload, performance, speed, and reliability. It’s important that they can share with customers how colocation in a large data center can meet their computing needs.

However, in another way, it’s important that the business understand things like an efficient use of rack space such as using Zero U cable routing systems, power allocation, proper cabling and labeling, and the physical protection the data center offers their network.

Some Benefits of Colocation

There are several benefits of colocation vs. building your own data center in your own business space.

  • Reliability – An established data center and shared computing with other businesses means your uptime is assured, and you have greater peace of mind when it comes to reliability.
  • Security and compliance – There are a variety of standards regarding physical and digital data security, and a colocated data center already meets those requirements. These concerns are more difficult to deal with when you have an on-site data center.
  • Cost of ownership – all the concerns related to data center security and reliability come with costs: those costs can quickly escalate. Colocation keeps those costs steady.
  • Scalability – Should you grow and need to scale your own data center, that could be quite costly. The potential space you have available in a colocated space makes scaling much simpler.
  • Interconnection – Being located with other businesses means you can do business together and share resources.
  • Hybrid cloud options – many colocation data centers also include cloud servers, meaning a hybrid cloud approach can be easier to adopt.

Of course, as with any data center solution, there can be some drawbacks. However, there are only a few, and most are related to cloud vs. colocation issues, including cost factors. These often come into play when a company is at a “tipping point” in growth, where they are on the verge of needing colocation, but cloud solutions are still working for them.

Physical Layer Environment Network Security Monitoring and Control

A150 Physical Layer Environment Network Security Monitoring and Control System Brochure

Full visibility, network security and control of your physical layer environment. Monitor your entire hybrid cloud and IT infrastructure from a cloud-based, integrated dashboard:

  • Introducing the A150 System
  • A150 System Architecture – High-Level Overview
  • A150 System Features
  • System Controller Hardware and Specifications
  • Monitoring Controllers, Probes and Sensors

About the Author

Louis Chompff - Founder, AnD Cable Products, Rack and Cable ManagementLouis Chompff, Founder & Managing Director, AnD Cable Products
Louis established AnD Cable Products – Intelligently Designed Cable Management in 1989. Prior to this he enjoyed a 20+ year career with a leading global telecommunications company in a variety of senior data management positions. Louis is an enthusiastic inventor who designed, patented and brought to market his innovative Zero U cable management racks and Unitag cabel labels, both of which have become industry-leading network cable management products. AnD Cable Products only offer products that are intelligently designed, increase efficiency, are durable and reliable, re-usable, easy to use or reduce equipment costs. He is the principal author of the Cable Management Blog, where you can find network cable management ideas, server rack cabling techniques and space saving tips, data center trends, latest innovations and more.
Visit https://andcable.com or shop online https://andcable.com/shop/

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3 Steps to Avoid Cable Management Troubles

Feature - 3 Steps to Avoid Cable Management Troubles - AnD Cable Management Blog

Do you ever have one of those projects that just turns into, well, a problem at every turn? You see it on your to-do list or as you walk by that area in the data center, and think, “I should finish that.” But the pain of the project, and the problems you’ve had with it, are just too much? Here are 3 steps to help you avoid cable management troubles before they become a problem project you need to try to ignore.

Jump to Section:

  1. Plan to Solve Cable Issues
  2. Gather Your Supplies
  3. Use the Latest Technology
European lab in the international space

Well, you aren’t alone. The European Lab in the International Space Station had a similar problem, according to the Associated Press and Tulsa World. A science research platform, one that has been waiting to go active for about a year, was targeted by a spacewalk that would also replace an out-of-date antenna.

But only four of six data cables needed could be hooked up, NASA told the associated press. The other two cable connectors wouldn’t close, so had to be capped and the completion of the hookup tabled for another spacewalk. You may not have to take spacewalks to fix issues in your data center, but there are 3 lessons we can learn from this cosmic misstep.

Plan to Solve Cable Issues

Cable issues are all too common in data centers: cables that are the wrong length, that have the wrong connector, or that cannot be routed properly. If you “wing it” you’ll likely end up with the familiar “spaghetti mess that will end up costing you time and potentially money later on.

When preparing for new installations, moves, or changes, make sure you have everything you need on hand to avoid cable management troubles. You don’t want to come up short, or have cables that won’t connect, even if you are not in the vacuum of space.

Gather Your Supplies

It’s one thing to have a plan. It’s another to make sure you have everything on hand to execute that plan. When it comes to installations, do you have the racks you need? The cable organization (lacing bars) you need to keep cables well routed? How about the sensors you may need to install for any remote monitoring and physical security solutions?

Don’t forget things like cable labels (and a labeling system). Future proof your data center and prevent problems down the road.

The same can be said for moves and changes. The old carpenter adage of “measure twice, cut once” is also applicable here. Be sure you have cables of the right length, the right cable connectors, labels, zip ties, Velcro, and other critical supplies to avoid cable management troubles.

Use the Latest Technology

Datacenter needs are forever changing, and it is important that you keep up and even be ahead of the game. Thinner cabling, in some cases larger servers and server racks, and new power cable connections and insulation all drive innovation. Prevent having to go back and make cable changes and replacements by meeting and exceeding the latest data center standards and practices.

Preparation is key. Before you “exit the airlock” to fix your data center issues, be sure you’re ready.

And if you need help, give us a call. We’re here to help you avoid cable management troubles with all the supplies you need, from ZeroU cable management solutions to physical security solutions. Contact us today and prevent the need for future “spacewalks” because you missed something critical.

Physical Layer Environment Network Security Monitoring and Control

A150 Physical Layer Environment Network Security Monitoring and Control System Brochure

Full visibility, network security and control of your physical layer environment. Monitor your entire hybrid cloud and IT infrastructure from a cloud-based, integrated dashboard:

  • Introducing the A150 System
  • A150 System Architecture – High-Level Overview
  • A150 System Features
  • System Controller Hardware and Specifications
  • Monitoring Controllers, Probes and Sensors

About the Author

Louis Chompff - Founder, AnD Cable Products, Rack and Cable ManagementLouis Chompff, Founder & Managing Director, AnD Cable Products
Louis established AnD Cable Products – Intelligently Designed Cable Management in 1989. Prior to this he enjoyed a 20+ year career with a leading global telecommunications company in a variety of senior data management positions. Louis is an enthusiastic inventor who designed, patented and brought to market his innovative Zero U cable management racks and Unitag cabel labels, both of which have become industry-leading network cable management products. AnD Cable Products only offer products that are intelligently designed, increase efficiency, are durable and reliable, re-usable, easy to use or reduce equipment costs. He is the principal author of the Cable Management Blog, where you can find network cable management ideas, server rack cabling techniques and space saving tips, data center trends, latest innovations and more.
Visit https://andcable.com or shop online https://andcable.com/shop/